Got Brain Fog?

Got Brain Fog?

Understanding the Causes and Impacts of Brain Fog

Brain fog, a term we often hear, describes a feeling of mental cloudiness or cognitive difficulties that many of us have experienced at some point. It's that feeling of sluggishness in your head, where focus becomes challenging, forgetfulness creeps in, and/or when we start to frequently make simple mistakes. This state can arise from a variety factors, including poor sleep quality, hormonal imbalances, and a range of health conditions such as anxiety, COVID-19, fibromyalgia, and Lyme disease.


The Experience Of Brain Fog Can Vary Significantly From Person To Person

For some, it’s a minor nuisance, while for others, it can be a crippling part of daily life, especially when it lingers and interferes with everyday activities and mental health. In these situations, the cause could be related to an underlying health problem.

Often linked to the concept of neuroinflammation, brain fog is believed to be a response to factors like lack of sleep, poor nutrition, medications, or drug use.

Chronic low-level inflammation is particularly harmful, affecting both the mind and body. It’s crucial to explore the mechanisms behind this condition, its symptoms, and potential treatments. However, the scientific understanding of specific treatments targeting the pathways of neuroinflammation for precise care is still developing. Despite this, there are both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions available to reduce inflammation and improve cognitive functioning.

At a more detailed level, brain fog manifests as confusion, forgetfulness, a lack of focus, and diminished mental clarity. Causes range from overworking and stress to spending excessive time on computers. Cellularly, it's associated with high levels of inflammation and hormonal changes that disrupt mood, energy, and focus. These imbalances can throw the body’s systems off balance and potentially lead to other health issues, including obesity, abnormal menstrual cycles, and diabetes mellitus.

Understanding brain fog in its entirety — from its varying degrees of impact to its underlying biological mechanisms — is essential for identifying effective treatments and lifestyle changes that can alleviate its symptoms and improve overall well-being.


Long Covid and Brain Fog

Recent research, supported by prominent institutes like the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has shed light on this puzzling condition. The study discovered that the SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for COVID-19, might persist in the gut long after the initial infection has passed. This lingering presence is thought to disrupt the gut microbiome, which is closely linked to cognitive various functions. A key finding related to serotonin, a crucial chemical involved in nerve communication, memory storage, digestion, and sexual desire. In individuals experiencing brain fog post-COVID-19, serotonin production is significantly depleted.

To delve deeper into this phenomenon, researchers analyzed over 1,500 individuals with Long COVID symptoms, focusing particularly on those who reported brain fog up to 22 months post-infection. They compared blood samples from these individuals to those in the early stages of COVID-19 and others who had recovered without symptoms. The results revealed those with brain fog had markedly lower serotonin levels right from the onset of their infection. Unlike other hormones and chemicals whose levels typically normalize after a viral infection, serotonin levels in these individuals did not rebound. This unique impact of COVID-19 on serotonin production could be a key factor in the persistence of brain fog among those who have recovered from the virus.

However, other complications stemming from COVID-19 infection, including fatigue, body aches, exercise intolerance, headaches, and sleep disturbances, arise due to the damage inflicted on vital organs such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys. These additional health issues can significantly heighten the risk of experiencing brain fog.


Hormonal Imbalances & Brain Fog

Thyroid hormones

Hypothyroidism, or low thyroid function, has a profound impact on the body and mind, often manifesting as, you guessed it, brain fog! When the thyroid underperforms, it doesn't produce enough hormones (t3, T4, and calcitonin) necessary for maintaining a healthy metabolism. This slowdown not only causes physical fatigue but also negatively impacts cognitive functions. Low thyroid function often leads to difficulties in processing information, concentrating, and retaining memories. The connection between hypothyroidism and brain fog becomes evident here - as the body struggles with energy production, the brain, in turn, struggles with maintaining its usual sharpness and clarity.

Moreover, the thyroid's interaction with other hormonal systems means that any imbalance can have wider implications, including mood disturbances like depression or anxiety. These conditions themselves can compound the effects of brain fog. Additionally, reduced thyroid function can lead to decreased blood flow to the brain, further impairing cognitive abilities.



Estrogen, a hormone most often discussed in the context of reproductive health, plays a crucial role in brain function. This extends far beyond its reproductive duties, significantly influencing cognitive abilities such as memory, learning, and attention. Fluctuating estrogen levels, which can occur during different life phases like menopause, menstrual cycles, or in conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), have a profound impact on mental processes. When these levels vary, women may experience what is commonly known as brain fog – characterized by memory lapses, difficulty in focusing, and a general sense of mental haziness. This is particularly notable during menopause and perimenopause when estrogen levels undergo significant changes.

Beyond its role in cognition, estrogen is also a key player in mood regulation and brain health. It interacts with various neurotransmitters, including serotonin, aiding in mood stabilization. Its neuroprotective properties support neuron survival, reduce inflammation, and promote neural growth. However, as estrogen levels decrease, especially with age, these protective effects dwindle, potentially leading to a decline in cognitive functions and the emergence of brain fog.



Progesterone, widely recognized for its crucial role in reproductive health, also plays a significant part in brain function, impacting mood, cognition, and overall mental clarity. This hormone is a key player in the body's neurological system, acting as a neurosteroid that influences the production of neurotransmitters, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), known for its calming effects on the brain. Fluctuations in progesterone levels, common during menstrual cycles, perimenopause, and menopause, are closely tied to cognitive difficulties like brain fog. For instance, elevated progesterone levels during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle can lead to feelings of lethargy and mental haziness. On the other hand, a decline in progesterone during menopause can contribute to noticeable cognitive setbacks.

Progesterone's impact extends to mood and sleep regulation, with its natural calming properties aiding in sleep promotion. Shifts in this hormone can disrupt sleep quality, subsequently leading to brain fog symptoms such as difficulty concentrating and diminished cognitive sharpness. Furthermore, progesterone interacts with the body's stress response, modulating the effects of cortisol, which is commonly referred to as the stress hormone. This interaction is crucial in understanding how hormonal imbalances might lead to brain fog, especially under stress. Additionally, the significant rise and subsequent fall in progesterone levels during pregnancy and the postpartum period can also contribute to the occurrence of brain fog, commonly reported among new mothers.



Testosterone plays a significant role in cognitive function for both men and women. This hormone's impact on the brain is substantial, influencing areas such as memory, focus, and energy levels. When testosterone levels are low, a condition known as hypogonadism in men and menopause in women, individuals often experience symptoms like that of brain fog. This cognitive fog manifests as difficulty concentrating, memory difficulties, and a general sense of mental fatigue.

The link between testosterone and brain health is rooted in how this hormone interacts with the brain's neurotransmitters and neural pathways. Testosterone is known to influence the production and function of several neurotransmitters that play key roles in cognitive processes and mood regulation. Additionally, testosterone has neuroprotective properties, helping to maintain brain cell health and function. Low levels of this hormone can lead to a decrease in these protective benefits, potentially resulting in diminished cognitive abilities over time, and the onset of brain fog. Understanding this connection is crucial, especially as men age or in women during the post-menopausal period, where natural declines in testosterone levels are common.



Cortisol, commonly known as the "stress hormone," plays a pivotal role in our body's response to stress, but it also has a significant impact on cognitive function and brain health. Elevated levels of cortisol, particularly during prolonged periods of stress or anxiety, can lead to a state commonly described as brain fog. This condition is characterized by symptoms such as reduced concentration, memory lapses, and a general feeling of mental cloudiness. When we're under chronic stress, the continuous high levels of cortisol can overburden our cognitive processes, making it challenging to think clearly, make decisions, and focus on tasks at hand.

The relationship between cortisol and brain fog is further nuanced by the hormone's impact on other bodily functions that are integral to cognitive health. High cortisol levels can disrupt sleep patterns, leading to fatigue and further exacerbating issues with mental clarity and focus. Additionally, cortisol can affect neurotransmitter balance and brain function, contributing to mood swings and impaired cognitive abilities. It's this intricate interplay between stress, cortisol levels, and brain function that underlines the importance of managing stress and maintaining balanced cortisol levels for optimal cognitive health.


Nutrition And Its Potential Impacts On Brain Fog

Nutrition plays a crucial role in the functioning of our brains, influencing everything from cognitive clarity to energy levels. The brain, a highly energy-intensive organ, requires a constant supply of nutrients to function optimally. When our diet lacks essential nutrients, or if we consume foods that negatively impact our body's processes, we may experience symptoms of brain fog. This cognitive haze is characterized by difficulties in concentration, memory lapses, and a general sense of mental sluggishness. Diets high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can lead to inflammation and imbalances in blood sugar levels, both of which are known to adversely affect cognitive functions. On the other hand, a lack of vital nutrients like Omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals can deprive the brain of the elements it needs for optimal performance, leading to decreased mental clarity and focus.

The gut-brain axis further highlights the importance of nutrition in cognitive health. Our gastrointestinal tract and brain are directly linked, meaning that the health of our gut microbiome can significantly influence our mental state. An imbalanced gut microbiome, often a result of poor dietary choices, can lead to increased inflammation and changes in mood and cognitive functions. Consuming a balanced diet rich in whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains, can support a healthy gut microbiome. This, in turn, supports brain health, reducing the likelihood of experiencing brain fog. Additionally, staying hydrated and maintaining steady blood sugar levels through regular, nutritious meals can be effective strategies in combating the mental cloudiness of brain fog. Understanding the connection between what we eat and how our brain functions is key to managing and potentially alleviating brain fog.

One diet in particular, the ketogenic diet, stands out as one that could be particularly beneficial to relieving effects of brain fog. The ketogenic diet, known for its high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen, has shown potential in alleviating symptoms of brain fog. By drastically reducing carbohydrate intake, this diet prompts the body to enter a state of ketosis, where it burns fat for energy instead of glucose. This shift can lead to increased production of ketones, which are an efficient and alternative fuel source for the brain. Many individuals report enhanced mental clarity and improved cognitive function while following a ketogenic diet. Additionally, the diet's ability to stabilize blood sugar levels can also contribute to reducing episodes of brain fog, as fluctuating glucose levels are often linked to cognitive inconsistencies. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of the ketogenic diet may also play a role in improving brain health and reducing symptoms associated with brain fog.


Neurotransmitters and Brain Fog

Neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers of the brain, play a vital role in regulating our cognitive functions, mood, and overall brain health. They facilitate communication between neurons, impacting everything from memory and concentration to emotional well-being. An imbalance in these crucial chemicals often leads to cognitive disruptions, commonly experienced as brain fog. This condition, characterized by symptoms like memory lapses, difficulty concentrating, and a general sense of mental cloudiness, can arise when key neurotransmitters are not in balance. For instance, low levels of serotonin, known for its mood-regulating properties, can lead to depression and anxiety, both of which can contribute to a feeling of brain fog. Similarly, deficits in dopamine, associated with motivation and reward, can result in a lack of focus and drive, further clouding mental clarity.

The intricate balance of neurotransmitters like acetylcholine, which is critical for learning and memory, also plays a role in brain fog. A deficiency in acetylcholine can lead to difficulties in processing information and recalling memories. Moreover, the brain's ability to adapt and respond to stress, a process known as neuroplasticity, can be hindered by neurotransmitter imbalances, leading to cognitive rigidity and a reduced ability to cope with mental tasks. Factors such as diet, stress, sleep, and exercise all influence neurotransmitter levels, highlighting the importance of a holistic approach to maintaining cognitive health. Managing stress, ensuring adequate sleep, maintaining a nutritious diet, and regular physical activity can all help in regulating neurotransmitter levels, thereby reducing the risk of brain fog and enhancing overall mental clarity and function.


What Actions And Supplements Can Be Taken To Mitigate The Effects Of Brain Fog?

  1. L-Theanine: Found in green tea, known for its calming effects, helps in reducing stress and improving focus. Increases GABA slightly increases serotonin and dopamine, and promotes alpha brain wave state.
  2. C8 MCT Oil: Provides rapid energy to the brain, enhances mental clarity and focus, especially beneficial in ketogenic diets.
  3. Alpha GPC: A choline-containing supplement that enhances cognitive functions and memory, potentially reducing brain fog by boosting acetylcholine levels.
  4. Lion's Mane Mushroom: Stimulates brain cell growth, potentially improving memory, focus, and alleviating brain fog.
  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Essential for brain health, they improve mental clarity and concentration.
  6. Vitamin B Complex: Vital for brain health and helps in managing stress and mood improvement.
  7. Vitamin D: Linked to cognitive function; deficiency can result in cognitive impairment.
  8. Magnesium: Aids in stress management and improves sleep quality.
  9. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10): Acts as an antioxidant, aiding in brain function and energy production.
  10. Ginkgo Biloba: Used for cognitive enhancement; believed to improve blood circulation and brain function.
  11. Curcumin (Turmeric): Offers anti-inflammatory properties and helps in reducing brain inflammation.
  12. Acetyl-L-Carnitine: Assists in energy production in the brain, may improve memory and mental clarity.
  13. Rhodiola Rosea: Aids in stress relief, combating fatigue, and improving concentration.
  14. Ashwagandha: An adaptogen that reduces stress and improves cognitive function.
  15. Probiotics: Supports a healthy gut microbiome, which may, in turn, support cognitive function.

Keto Brainz Nootropic creamer uniquely blends several of these supplements (L-Theanine, C8 MCT, Lion's Mane Mushroom and AlphaGPC), offering an efficacious dose of each in a single delicious serving.


Alternative Approaches To Managing Brain Fog

Aside from dialing in our nutrition and supplementation, there are several other options we can use to address brain fog. These approaches include meditation, interacting with friends and loved ones, taking a quick power nap (although long naps can worsen brain fog), doing a creative hobby, and going outdoors and interacting with nature. Each of these hobbies can help to relieve stress and anxiety, while at the same time creating a positive stimulation, which can mitigate the negative effects of brain fog, and overtime, reduce the likelihood of it occurring.


In wrapping up, it's clear that brain fog is a multifaceted issue with diverse causes and impacts. From hormonal imbalances and nutritional deficiencies to chronic stress and prolonged illnesses like COVID-19, the triggers are varied. Understanding the underlying reasons, whether it’s due to thyroid issues, estrogen, or testosterone levels, or even cortisol imbalances, is key to finding effective solutions.

Diet plays a significant role too, with the ketogenic diet showing promise in enhancing cognitive clarity. Supplements like L-Theanine, AlphaGPC, Lion's Mane Mushroom, and C8 MCT, found in products like Keto Brainz Nootropic Creamer, can offer a convenient boost in combating brain fog. Remember, tackling brain fog is about addressing its root causes holistically, incorporating lifestyle changes, stress management, and appropriate supplementation to clear the mental haze and improve overall cognitive function.



Meet the Author:
David Battisti, MScN

I am a multi-sport athlete with a fascination with nutritional sciences. I was diagnosed with severe chronic asthma at the age of 5, and over the years discovered how diet could be used to alleviate my symptoms. While I am pretty diet agnostic, I have found ways that work for me, and love to help people discover ways they can do the same! I also own a small business called Alacrity Nutrition, which seeks to help people discover what gets them excited about health. Check out my website at:


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I decided to stop being a retired operations executive and get out of the house, doing something physical. At 71 years of age, I took on the role of Rural Carrier Associate for the USPS. It’s a 60 plus mile long route with several hundred addresses, to be serviced with mail and parcels as well as Amazon packages. The job requires good cognitive skills, short and long term ability to remember numbers and names and with Amazon, good physical condition. I am convinced after a few weeks of Ketobrainz in my morning bullet coffee, my mental alertness and focus have improved and my physical coordination required continually throughout the day, spot on. Have I deluded myself . . I’m poretty sure the improvements are real and the result of Ketbrainz consumption. B Forbes

Bruce Forbes

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